Wiki:help/howtos/development/developer_information/package_development_advanced

Package Developing - Advanced Topics

This chapter deals with some advanced topics on creating freetz-packages. It assumes that you are already familiar with the basic concepts described here.

Adding conditional patches

If you'd like to add conditional patches which could be enabled/disable by the user via menuconfig, a good example is r11348

Adding multi-binary packages

Imagine you would like to add a freetz-package for some set of tools developed within the same source tree and thus distributed together as a single tarball file. Furthermore, you would like the user to be able to select which tool should be included in the image and which not. The simple straightforward solution might look like this:

Config.in

FREETZ_PACKAGE_FOO_BINARY1
    bool "include binary1"
    default n
    help
	Adds binary1 to the image

FREETZ_PACKAGE_FOO_BINARY2
    bool "include binary2"
    default n
    help
	Adds binary2 to the image

....

FREETZ_PACKAGE_FOO_BINARYN
    bool "include binaryN"
    default n
    help
	Adds binaryN to the image

foo.mk

$(call PKG_INIT_BIN, 0.0.1)
$(PKG)_SOURCE:=$(pkg)-$($(PKG)_VERSION).tar.gz
$(PKG)_SOURCE_MD5:=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
$(PKG)_SITE:=http://www.foo.net/

$(PKG)_BINARY1 := $($(PKG)_DIR)/binary1
$(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY1 := $($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/bin/binary1
$(PKG)_BINARY2 := $($(PKG)_DIR)/binary2
$(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY2 := $($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/bin/binary2
...
$(PKG)_BINARYN := $($(PKG)_DIR)/binaryN
$(PKG)_TARGET_BINARYN := $($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/bin/binaryN

$(PKG_SOURCE_DOWNLOAD)
$(PKG_UNPACKED)
$(PKG_CONFIGURED_CONFIGURE)

$($(PKG)_BINARY1) $($(PKG)_BINARY2) ... $($(PKG)_BINARYN): $($(PKG)_DIR)/.configured
	PATH="$(TARGET_PATH)" \
	$(MAKE) -C $(FOO_DIR) \
	all

$($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY1): $($(PKG)_BINARY1)
ifeq ($(strip $(FREETZ_PACKAGE_FOO_BINARY1)),y)
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)
else
	$(RM) $@
endif

$($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY2): $($(PKG)_BINARY2)
ifeq ($(strip $(FREETZ_PACKAGE_FOO_BINARY2)),y)
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)
else
	$(RM) $@
endif

...

$($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARYN): $($(PKG)_BINARYN)
ifeq ($(strip $(FREETZ_PACKAGE_FOO_BINARYN)),y)
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)
else
	$(RM) $@
endif

$(pkg):

$(pkg)-precompiled: $($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY1) $($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY2) ... $($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARYN)

$(pkg)-clean:
	-$(MAKE) -C $(FOO_DIR) clean

$(pkg)-uninstall:
	$(RM) $(FOO_TARGET_BINARY1) $(FOO_TARGET_BINARY2) ... $(FOO_TARGET_BINARYN)

$(PKG_FINISH)

There is nothing wrong with this solution. It is perfectly suitable for packages providing two or three binaries. For packages providing more binaries you would however quickly realize that by adding new binary to the package you don't write any new code but actually copying and adjusting the old one (in software engineering this process is called code cloning and is advised to be avoided as it may inflate maintenance costs).

Make is a very powerful tool and allows the same task to be solved writing much less code by using patterns and the so called static pattern rules. Let's take a look at the real Makefile of the dosfstools package.

dosfstools.mk

$(call PKG_INIT_BIN, 3.0.5)
$(PKG)_SOURCE:=$(pkg)-$($(PKG)_VERSION).tar.gz
$(PKG)_SOURCE_MD5:=d48177cde9c6ce64333133424bf32912
$(PKG)_SITE:=http://www.daniel-baumann.ch/software/dosfstools

$(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL := dosfsck dosfslabel mkdosfs
$(PKG)_BINARIES := $(strip $(foreach binary,$($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL),$(if $(FREETZ_PACKAGE_$(PKG)_$(shell echo $(binary) | tr [a-z] [A-Z])),$(binary))))
$(PKG)_BINARIES_BUILD_DIR := $($(PKG)_BINARIES:%=$($(PKG)_DIR)/%)
$(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR := $($(PKG)_BINARIES:%=$($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%)
$(PKG)_NOT_INCLUDED := $(patsubst %,$($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%,$(filter-out $($(PKG)_BINARIES),$($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL)))

# always compile with LFS enabled
$(PKG)_CFLAGS := $(subst $(CFLAGS_LARGEFILE),,$(TARGET_CFLAGS)) $(CFLAGS_LFS_ENABLED) -fomit-frame-pointer

$(PKG_SOURCE_DOWNLOAD)
$(PKG_UNPACKED)
$(PKG_CONFIGURED_NOP)

$($(PKG)_BINARIES_BUILD_DIR): $($(PKG)_DIR)/.configured
	PATH="$(TARGET_PATH)" \
		$(MAKE) -C $(DOSFSTOOLS_DIR) \
		CC="$(TARGET_CC)" \
		CFLAGS="$(DOSFSTOOLS_CFLAGS)" \
		all

$($(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR): $($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%: $($(PKG)_DIR)/%
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)

$(pkg):

$(pkg)-precompiled: $($(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR)

$(pkg)-clean:
	-$(MAKE) -C $(DOSFSTOOLS_DIR) clean

$(pkg)-uninstall:
	$(RM) $(DOSFSTOOLS_BINARIES_ALL:%=$(DOSFSTOOLS_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%)

$(PKG_FINISH)

This line

$(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL := dosfsck dosfslabel mkdosfs

simply defines a variable containing the names (just the names not the full paths) of all binaries of the package.

This next line

$(PKG)_BINARIES := $(strip $(foreach binary,$($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL),$(if $(FREETZ_PACKAGE_$(PKG)_$(shell echo $(binary) | tr [a-z] [A-Z])),$(binary))))

is probably the most complex one in the whole makefile. It defines a variable containing the names of all binaries selected in menuconfig. This is done by iterating (foreach function) over the names of all binaries ($($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL)) and evaluating the variable with dynamically constructed name FREETZ_PACKAGE_$(PKG)_$(shell echo $(binary) | tr [a-z] [A-Z]). The expression $(shell echo $(binary) | tr [a-z] [A-Z]) is a simple invocation of tr program which returns the upper-cased binary name. In case the variable with dynamically constructed name evaluates to some non-empty value (the only possible non-empty value is y) the binary is added to the $(PKG)_BINARIES variable. For those of you who is familiar with other programming languages, this line is equivalent to the following pseudo-code:

$(PKG)_BINARIES := {}; # {} represents an empty set
for binary in $($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL); do
   if isNotEmpty($(FREETZ_PACKAGE_$(PKG)_$(UPPERCASED_BINARY_NAME))); then
      $(PKG)_BINARIES += $(binary);
   fi
done

The outter strip function ensures that $(PKG)_BINARIES remains empty if no binary at all is selected in menuconfig (the foreach function always adds spaces in between regardless of whether FREETZ_PACKAGE_$(PKG)_$(UPPERCASED_BINARY_NAME) evaluates to something non-empty or not).

The advantage of this line is that it is absolutely generic. It depends neither on the number of binaries the package provides nor on the package name. You could use it on your packages without a change and without actually understanding how exactly it does what it does.

The next two lines

$(PKG)_BINARIES_BUILD_DIR := $($(PKG)_BINARIES:%=$($(PKG)_DIR)/%)
$(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR := $($(PKG)_BINARIES:%=$($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%)

are absolutely identical in the sense of makefile techniques used. They both use a shorthand for the make patsubst function. Each word in the list defined by $(PKG)_BINARIES variable matching the '%'-pattern is replaced with $($(PKG)_DIR)/%. I.e. provided $(PKG)_BINARIES is equal to 'dosfsck mkdosfs', $(PKG)_BINARIES_BUILD_DIR would be equal to '$($(PKG)_DIR)/dosfsck $($(PKG)_DIR)/mkdosfs' (see this page for the explanations of what '%'-sign means when used in pattern and what it means when used in replacement). Both lines could also be written this way:

$(PKG)_BINARIES_BUILD_DIR := $(addprefix $($(PKG)_DIR)/,$($(PKG)_BINARIES))
$(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR := $(addprefix $($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/,$($(PKG)_BINARIES))

The next line

$(PKG)_NOT_INCLUDED := $(patsubst %,$($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%,$(filter-out $($(PKG)_BINARIES),$($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL)))

does absolutely the same as the line defining the $(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR variable with the only difference that it contains the list of dosfstools-binaries not selected in menuconfig. This part of it

$(filter-out $($(PKG)_BINARIES),$($(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL))

computes the difference between the $(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL and $(PKG)_BINARIES sets, i.e. it contains all binaries contained in $(PKG)_BINARIES_ALL and not contained in $(PKG)_BINARIES.

The variable $(PKG)_NOT_INCLUDED has a special meaning in freetz framework. It is expected to contain a list of all package files to be excluded from the image. Defining this variable allows all explicit $(RM) $@ lines existing in the 1st example to be removed. Freetz' build system will take care of removing unnecessary files.

The last fragment we take a look at is the following one:

$($(PKG)_BINARIES_TARGET_DIR): $($(PKG)_DEST_DIR)/usr/sbin/%: $($(PKG)_DIR)/%
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)

It defines the so called static pattern rule, a rule which specifies multiple targets and constructs the prerequisite names for each target based on the target name. These two lines are _absolutely_ equivalent to the following ones from the 1st example, they are just a shorthand for them:

$($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY1): $($(PKG)_BINARY1)
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)

$($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARY2): $($(PKG)_BINARY2)
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)

...

$($(PKG)_TARGET_BINARYN): $($(PKG)_BINARYN)
	$(INSTALL_BINARY_STRIP)

That is actually it. There is absolutely no magic behind it.

You might want to take a look at the Makefiles of the following packages: e2fsprogs, lighttpd, subversion. They all use the techniques like those described above.

zuletzt geändert vor 3 Jahren Zuletzt geändert am 01.12.2013 09:00:33